THE EFFECTIVENESS OF WEARING PEDESTRIAN HELMET WHILE WALKING FROM HOME TO SCHOOL IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN.
(from the Third International Conference on Injury Control and Prevention, Melbourne, Australia,
Presenter: Tatsuhiro Yamanaka, JAPAN
Yamanaka Tatsuhiro; Ogihara Arata
Department of Pediatrics,
Yaizu Municipal Hospital, Yaizu city, Shizuoka, Department of Public Health,
School of Medicine, Yokohama City University, Yokohama city, Kanagawa,
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of head injury prevention among
pedestrians wearing a helmet while walk.
METHOD: We performed a retrospective case control study of head injury in
elementary school children over a five-year period in Shimizu city. Population
is 240, 000 and there are 26 elementary schools in this city. The principle of
the school can decide whether helmet wearing should be a rule for pupils, which
means there are only two possible situations, wearing or not wearing a helmet
while walking. Elementary school children are prohibited from bicycling to
school and there is no school bus system at all. The number of head injuries
and other injuries were collected from the data sheet by the insurance system
of the School Safety Division of the National Stadium and School Health Center
RESULTS: There were 13 elementary schools which required students to wear a
helmet while walk. One school had changed from wearing a helmet to not wearing
a helmet during the 5-year period. The accumulated annual number of elementary
school children was 32,922 required to wear helmets, and 56,214 not required to
wear helmets. The number of injuries among children wearing helmets was 58
(0.18%), and 125 (0.22%) among children not wearing helmets during the 5-year
period. Head injuries were recorded in 4 children (0.012%) wearing helmets and
10 (0.018%) who were not wearing helmets.
CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference between children wearing
helmets and those not wearing helmets in the incidence of all injuries and head
injuries by Xy test. The odds ratio for the no helmet system was 1.26 ( 0.92 to
1.71 for 95 % confidence) for all injuries and 1.46 ( 0.45 to 4.12 for 95 %
confidence) for head injuries.